A British commemoration of the victory of the Royal Navy over the French and Spanish fleets, Trafalgar Day seeks to pay honor to this important occasion that was a pivotal point in history. History buffs, navy fans, and just average people can all find ways to learn more and enjoy marking this momentous event!
History of Trafalgar Day
The Battle of Trafalgar took place on October 21, 1805, when the Royal Navy, under the command of Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, was able to triumph during the Napoleonic Wars, even though the British side had six fewer ships. This is considered the most important event on the calendar of the famous HMS Victory, which is the oldest commissioned warship in the world.
The cost of the Battle of Trafalgar was high, with approximately 1600 British seamen either wounded or killed in the battle, including Admiral Nelson who was mortally wounded. Even so, these tallies are small compared to the losses on the other side, where around 20,000 men from the Spanish and French navies were taken as prisoners of war, and almost 7,000 more were killed or wounded. Admiral Pierre de Villeneuve, the leader for the opposing side, was one of those who was captured.
Historians put the British win down to having a more well-trained group of seamen in the Royal Navy. After having been at sea together for at least two years, they knew exactly how to function as a team. In addition, the British sailors were well-trained in how to use their weapons, practicing firing their guns several days a week for many years in preparation.
While the Battle of Trafalgar was certainly an important victory, establishing the supremacy of the British Royal Navy for over a century, it wasn’t until 1896 that the legacy left behind by Admiral Nelson was duly recognized. The motivation behind the first celebration of Trafalgar Day more than 90 years later was brought on by the formation of the Navy League in 1894.
That first celebration in 1896 was commemorated all throughout the British Empire, with various festivities such as special dinners, parades and more. For more than 100 years, Trafalgar Day was a huge celebration for Britain, however it waned after the end of World War I in 1918, with the recognition of the devastating effects of war.
Although Trafalgar Day is still marked as a public day each year in Britain, it has been somewhat overshadowed by Armistice Day that is scheduled just ten days earlier on October 11, also known as Remembrance Day in the Commonwealth or Veteran’s Day in the United States.
In 2005, on the 200th anniversary of the Battle of Trafalgar, a special celebration took place, named Trafalgar 200. The celebration of the navy that year, including the International Fleet Review, was larger and more vibrant than usual.
In smaller circles, particularly those related to the navy, the evening of Trafalgar Day is still a time when the celebration of this important battle continues annually. The Royal Navy has the tradition of holding a Trafalgar Night dinner in the Officer’s Mess, with speeches, toasts and other activities to pay honor to the event.
While it is important to remember that every battle and war is always tragic, the protection the Royal Navy had for the British Empire in 1805 is also worth remembering on Trafalgar Day. After all, had the battle turned out differently, the history of Europe might have been very different as well!
How to Celebrate Trafalgar Day
Show some appreciation and honor for the Battle of Trafalgar by joining in on some observances with a few of these ideas:
Visit Trafalgar Square
Make a big deal out of Trafalgar Day by going to the place where the battle is memorialized – Trafalgar Square in London. This square was established in the early 19th century in the central part of the city, around the area called Charing Cross. The name was given in 1835 and, of course, it was named after the battle where Admiral Nelson led the navy to victory.
Since the 12th century, this area of land in London has been used for various public gatherings as well as political demonstrations. Today, Trafalgar Square still acts in those ways, and it also houses some important features of London, including The National Gallery, Nelson’s Column and the curious Trafalgar Square fourth plinth.
Learn More About the Battle of Trafalgar
Get to know about the battle that Trafalgar Day celebrates by learning a bit more about. Check out some of these interesting facts about the battle to get started with:
Though the Battle of Trafalgar was an important one in establishing the British navy’s control of the seas, it was another ten years until Napoleon was finally defeated at Waterloo, in 1815.
While the British fleet had only 27 ships and the French and Spanish fleet combined to a total of 33, they still won the victory. And the British also lost no ships in the battle.
This famous signal from Admiral Nelson was sent just before the Battle of Trafalgar: “England expects every man to do his duty.”
Visit a Royal Navy Museum
One excellent way to get involved with celebrating Trafalgar Day might be to learn more about British naval history up close and personal, by visiting one of the six locations of the National Museums of the Royal Navy. In addition to seeing galleries, looking at displays and learning from exhibitions, this museum is also all about the experience that allows visitors to get up close and personal.
The main museum is located in Portsmouth at the historic dockyard, while there is also a museum at Hartlepool. The Royal Navy Submarine Museum and the Explosion Museum of Naval Firepower can be found in Gosport, near Portsmouth. The retired HMS Caroline warship from World War I can also be visited in Belfast, Northern Ireland, while the Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm Museum is located on an airfield near Yeovilton.
Trafalgar Day FAQs
Where is Trafalgar?
Cape Trafalgar is a coastal headland that is located in the southwestern portion of Spain, on the Atlantic Ocean.
Where is Trafalgar Square?
Trafalgar Square is a public square located in Central London, in the city of Westminster, United Kingdom.
Who won the Battle of Trafalgar?
Britain won the Battle of Trafalgar against the French and Spanish naval fleets.
How did Admiral Nelson win the Battle of Trafalgar?
The battle against Napoleon was won for a number of reasons, but much of it due to superior training as well as better weapons.
Who are on the plinths in Trafalgar Square?
Three plinths have statues of King George IV, General Sir Charles James Napier, and Sir Henry Havelock. The fourth plinth was meant for William IV, but it was left empty due to lack of funding. Since 1998, it has had changing artwork.